Directory of Diseases

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Vaginal Yeast (Fungal) Infection

Yeast are fungi which can commonly infect the vaginal area. The most common organism that causes a yeast infection is Candida albicans. These infections are common, affecting up to 75% of women in their lifetime. They are especially common in women taking birth control, and women with uncontrolled diabetes, and recent antibiotic use. The antibiotic kills the normal bacteria that live in the vagina, Lactobacillus acidophilus, allowing the fungus to grow without any competition.

Vascular Insufficiency in Lower Leg (Claudication)

Muscles depend on blood flow for oxygen. When a muscle is used it requires more oxygen and therefore more blood flow. If there is a narrowing or blockage in the artery feeding a muscle then it will not receive enough blood flow during use. This will lead to claudication - a sensation of muscle fatigue or cramping pain that occurs after minimal exercise. This pain is relieved by rest. This can occur in any muscle but it happens most commonly in the muscles of the calf. Other places affected include the thighs, buttocks, hips and feet. Atherosclerosis (buildup of plaque in the walls of arteries) is the usual cause of claudication. As the buildup continues, the artery becomes more and more narrow, leading to poor healing and increased risk of infections which could eventually necessitate possible amputation of the affected limb.

Vertebral Fracture of Back

A 'fracture' means a broken bone. A vertebral fracture is a fracture of one of the bones in the spine. The vertebrae are the bones that make up the spine in the neck and back. Vertebral fracture of the back is a 'broken back'. How bad a vertebral fracture is depends on what part of it is broken. The most common fracture is a compression fracture in which a vertebra is crushed after being compressed. This occurs most commonly in the middle to lower spine. These occurs frequently in the elderly patients because of osteoporosis and can happen after minor trauma such as sitting down too hard. Vertebral fractures can be true emergencies and should be evaluated in the ER. If you are having leg or arm weakness or loss of bowel or bladder control, call 911 immediately.